(13.44) |

Here is upper triangular, while is orthogonal, that is,

(13.45) |

where is the transpose matrix of . The standard algorithm for the QR decomposition involves successive Householder transformations. The Householder algorithm reduces a matrix A to the triangular form R by orthogonal transformations. An appropriate Householder matrix applied to a given matrix can zero all elements in a column of the matrix situated below a chosen element. Thus we arrange for the first Householder matrix to zero all elements in the first column of below the first element. Similarly zeroes all elements in the second column below the second element, and so on up to . The Householder matrix has the form:

(13.46) |

where is a real vector with . The matrix is orthogonal, because . Therefore . But , and so , proving orthogonality. Let's rewrite as

with | (13.47) |

and can now be any vector. Suppose is the vector composed of the first column of . Choose where is the unit vector , and the choice of signs will be made later. Then

This shows that the Householder matrix P acts on a given vector to zero all its elements except the first one. To reduce a symmetric matrix to triangular form, we choose the vector for the first Householder matrix to be the first column. Then the lower elements will be zeroed:

(13.48) |

If the vector for the second Householder matrix is the lower elements of the second column, then the lower elements will be zeroed:

(13.49) |

Where and the quantity is simply plus or minus the magnitude of the vector . Clearly a sequence of such transformation will reduce the matrix A to triangular form . Instead of actually carrying out the matrix multiplications in , we compute a vector . Then . This is a computationally useful formula. We have the following: . We will thus form by recursion after all the 's have been determined:

No extra storage is needed for intermediate results but the original matrix is destroyed.